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Authors = Wenjun Zhou ORCID = 0000-0003-2346-8151

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Open AccessArticle Food Choice Priorities Change Over Time and Predict Dietary Intake at the End of the First Year of College Among Students in the U.S.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091296
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study assessed food choice priorities (FCP) and associations with consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), fiber, added sugars from non-beverage sources, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among college students. Freshmen from eight U.S. universities (N = 1149) completed the Food Choice Priorities
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  • 400| 192| 655| 445| 151| 25| 615| 183| 550| 289| [...] Read more.
    This study assessed food choice priorities (FCP) and associations with consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), fiber, added sugars from non-beverage sources, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among college students. Freshmen from eight U.S. universities (N = 1149) completed the Food Choice Priorities Survey, designed for college students to provide a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices, and the NCI Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Changes in FCP and dietary intake from fall 2015 to spring 2016 were assessed. Multiple regression models examined associations between FCP and log-transformed dietary intake, controlling for sex, age, race, and BMI. Participant characteristics and FCP associations were also assessed. FCP importance changed across the freshmen year and significantly predicted dietary intake. The most important FCP were price, busy daily life and preferences, and healthy aesthetic. Students who endorsed healthy aesthetic factors (health, effect on physical appearance, freshness/quality/in season) as important for food choice, consumed more FV and fiber and less added sugar and SSB. Busy daily life and preferences (taste, convenience, routine, ability to feel full) predicted lower FV, higher added sugar, and higher SSB consumption. Price predicted lower FV, higher SSB, and more added sugar while the advertising environment was positively associated with SSB intake. FCP and demographic factors explained between 2%–17% of the variance in dietary intake across models. The strongest relationship was between healthy aesthetic factors and SSB (B = −0.37, p < 0.01). Self-rated importance of factors influencing food choice are related to dietary intake among students. Interventions that shift identified FCP may positively impact students’ diet quality especially considering that some FCP increase in importance across the first year of college. Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Cross-sectional, significant relationships between dietary intake and food choice priorities at the end of the freshmen year controlling for BMI, race, age, and sex (model 2). Numbers represent percentage change. Blue arrows indicate dietary intake in the direction one would prefer to promote healthy diets. Red arrows indicate dietary intake in a less desirable direction. Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) scales and items are listed in order from most to least important based on mean ratings on a Likert scale. FV = Fruit and Vegetables minus French fries, SSB = Sugar sweetened beverages.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle Neck Circumference Positively Relates to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in College Students
    Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071480
    Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
    PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and other anthropometric measures and examine cut-off points for males and females according to existing waist circumference cut-off levels in this age group. Across 8 universities, 1562 students underwent
    [...] Read more.
    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and other anthropometric measures and examine cut-off points for males and females according to existing waist circumference cut-off levels in this age group. Across 8 universities, 1562 students underwent a physical assessment. Spearman rho correlations (ρ) were calculated to determine associations between NC and other continuous variables of health. Receiving operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the optimal cut-off levels of NC of males and females with central obesity. Participants were predominantly Caucasian (67%), female (70%), and outside of Appalachia (82%). Forty-one percent of males and 34% of females had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. In both sexes, significant positive correlations were seen between NC and body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and systolic blood pressure (all p-values < 0.0001). NC ≥ 38 cm for males and ≥33.5 cm for females were the optimal cut-off values to determine subjects with central obesity. NC has been identified to closely correlate with other anthropometric measurements related to disease and could be used as a convenient, low-cost, and noninvasive measurement in large-scale studies. Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curves determined from the neck circumference and central obesity (waist circumference &gt;102 cm in males (<bold>left</bold>) and &gt;88 cm females (<bold>right</bold>)).</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle The Deoxygenation Pathways of Palmitic Acid into Hydrocarbons on Silica-Supported Ni12P5 and Ni2P Catalysts
    Catalysts 2018, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8040153
    Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
    PDF Full-text (22551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Pure Ni12P5/SiO2 and pure Ni2P/SiO2 catalysts were obtained by adjusting the Ni and P molar ratios, while Ni/SiO2 catalyst was prepared as a reference against which the deoxygenation pathways of palmitic acid were investigated.
    [...] Read more.
    Pure Ni12P5/SiO2 and pure Ni2P/SiO2 catalysts were obtained by adjusting the Ni and P molar ratios, while Ni/SiO2 catalyst was prepared as a reference against which the deoxygenation pathways of palmitic acid were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission election microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy of pyridine adsorption (Py-IR), H2-adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen (H2-TPD). The crystallographic planes of Ni(111), Ni12P5(400), Ni2P(111) were found mainly exposed on the above three catalysts, respectively. It was found that the deoxygenation pathway of palmitic acid mainly proceeded via direct decarboxylation (DCO2) to form C15 on Ni/SiO2. In contrast, on the Ni12P5/SiO2 catalyst, there were two main competitive pathways producing C15 and C16, one of which mainly proceeded via the decarbonylation (DCO) to form C15 accompanying water formation, and the other pathway produced C16 via the dehydration of hexadecanol intermediate, and the yield of C15 was approximately twofold that of C16. Over the Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, two main deoxygenation pathways formed C15, one of which was mainly the DCO pathway and the other was dehydration accompanying the hexadecanal intermediate and then direct decarbonylation without water formation. The turn over frequency (TOF) followed the order: Ni12P5/SiO2 > Ni/SiO2 > Ni2P/SiO2. Full article
    Figures

    Graphical abstract

    Graphical abstract
    Full article ">Figure 1
    <p>X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub>, Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalysts. Intensity is given in arbitrary units (a.u.).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra in the Ni (2p) regions (<bold>a</bold>) and P (2p) regions (<bold>b</bold>) for Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub>, Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>Nitrogen adsorbtion–desorption isotherm (<bold>a</bold>) and the Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) pore-size distribution curve (<bold>b</bold>) of all samples.</p>
    Full article ">Scheme 1
    <p>Possible deoxygenation reactions for fatty acid conversion.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images of the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>a</bold>,<bold>d</bold>), Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>b</bold>,<bold>e</bold>) and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>c</bold>,<bold>f</bold>) catalysts.</p>
    Full article ">Scheme 2
    <p>(<bold>a</bold>) The suggested main reaction pathways of palmitic acid over the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst; (<bold>b</bold>) the suggested main reaction pathways of palmitic acid over the Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst; (<bold>c</bold>) the suggested main reaction pathways of palmitic acid over the Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5
    <p>Infrared spectroscopy of pyridine adsorption (Py-IR) profiles of Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub>, Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalysts.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6
    <p>Gas chromatographs (GC) of the products over different samples.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 7
    <p>The conversion of palmitic acid in terms of the yields and selectivity of several typical products on the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>a</bold>,<bold>b</bold>); Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>c</bold>,<bold>d</bold>); and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>e</bold>,<bold>f</bold>) catalysts. Reaction conditions: batch reactor, 543 K, H<sub>2</sub> initial pressure: 1.2 MPa; stirring at 600 rpm, heptane (100 mL), catalyst (5 g L<sup>?1</sup>); palmitic acid (10 g L<sup>?1</sup>); NOL: hexadecanol, NAL: hexadecanal.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 8
    <p>The conversion of reactant ((<bold>a</bold>): hexadecanol, (<bold>b</bold>): hexadecanal, (<bold>c</bold>): the ratio hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1) and the yields of the main products as a function of reaction time on the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst. Reaction conditions: batch reactor, 543 K, H<sub>2</sub> initial pressure: 1.2 MPa; stirring at 600 rpm, heptane (100 mL), catalyst (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); hexadecanal (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanol (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1 (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); NOL: hexadecanol, NAL: hexadecanal.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 9
    <p>The ratio of C15/C16 hydrocarbons over the Ni/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>a</bold>); Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>b</bold>) and Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> (<bold>c</bold>) catalysts.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 10
    <p>The conversion of reactant ((<bold>a</bold>): hexadecanol, (<bold>b</bold>): hexadecanal, (<bold>c</bold>): the ratio hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1) and the yields of the main products as a function of reaction time on the Ni<sub>12</sub>P<sub>5</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst. Reaction conditions: batch reactor, 543 K, H<sub>2</sub> initial pressure: 1.2 MPa; stirring at 600 rpm, heptane (100 mL), catalyst (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); hexadecanal (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanol (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1 (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); NOL: hexadecanol, NAL: hexadecanal.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 11
    <p>The conversion of reactant ((<bold>a</bold>): hexadecanol, (<bold>b</bold>): hexadecanal, (<bold>c</bold>): the ratio hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1) and the yields of the main products as a function of reaction time on the Ni<sub>2</sub>P/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst. Reaction conditions: batch reactor, 543 K, H<sub>2</sub> initial pressure: 1.2 MPa; stirring at 600 rpm, heptane (100 mL), catalyst (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); hexadecanal (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanol (10 g·L<sup>?1</sup>), hexadecanal/hexadecanol = 1 (5 g·L<sup>?1</sup>); NOL: hexadecanol, NAL: hexadecanal.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle A Novel Method for Separating and Locating Multiple Partial Discharge Sources in a Substation
    Sensors 2017, 17(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020247
    Received: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 27 January 2017
    Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
    Abstract
    To separate and locate multi-partial discharge (PD) sources in a substation, the use of spectrum differences of ultra-high frequency signals radiated from various sources as characteristic parameters has been previously reported. However, the separation success rate was poor when signal-to-noise ratio was low,
    [...] Read more.
    To separate and locate multi-partial discharge (PD) sources in a substation, the use of spectrum differences of ultra-high frequency signals radiated from various sources as characteristic parameters has been previously reported. However, the separation success rate was poor when signal-to-noise ratio was low, and the localization result was a coordinate on two-dimensional plane. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to improve the separation rate and the localization accuracy. A directional measuring platform is built using two directional antennas. The time delay (TD) of the signals captured by the antennas is calculated, and TD sequences are obtained by rotating the platform at different angles. The sequences are separated with the TD distribution feature, and the directions of the multi-PD sources are calculated. The PD sources are located by directions using the error probability method. To verify the method, a simulated model with three PD sources was established by XFdtd. Simulation results show that the separation rate is increased from 71% to 95% compared with the previous method, and an accurate three-dimensional localization result was obtained. A field test with two PD sources was carried out, and the sources were separated and located accurately by the proposed method. Full article
    (This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>The direction measurement method for one partial discharge (PD) source based on two directional antennas.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>The separation method of the time delay (TD) sequences.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>The localization principle for one PD source with multi-PD source.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>The simulation model arrangement and the Vivaldi antenna; (<bold>a</bold>) The space distribution of the simulated PD sources and the measurement points; (<bold>b</bold>) The Vivaldi antenna; (<bold>c</bold>) The radiation pattern of the Vivaldi antenna.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5a
    <p>The original and noisy ultra-high frequency (UHF) signals radiated by P<sub>2</sub> at O<sub>2</sub> and the calculated TDs. (<bold>a</bold>) The received UHF signals radiated by P<sub>2</sub> at O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>b</bold>) The noisy UHF signals when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) = 5 dB; (<bold>c</bold>) The calculated TDs.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5b
    <p>The original and noisy ultra-high frequency (UHF) signals radiated by P<sub>2</sub> at O<sub>2</sub> and the calculated TDs. (<bold>a</bold>) The received UHF signals radiated by P<sub>2</sub> at O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>b</bold>) The noisy UHF signals when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) = 5 dB; (<bold>c</bold>) The calculated TDs.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6a
    <p>The TDs and decision diagram at O<sub>2</sub> when SNR = 5 dB. (<bold>a</bold>) The TDs at the measurement point O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>b</bold>) The decision diagram when <italic>α<sub>j</sub> </italic>= 0°; (<bold>c</bold>) The separated TD center sequences at O<sub>2</sub>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6b
    <p>The TDs and decision diagram at O<sub>2</sub> when SNR = 5 dB. (<bold>a</bold>) The TDs at the measurement point O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>b</bold>) The decision diagram when <italic>α<sub>j</sub> </italic>= 0°; (<bold>c</bold>) The separated TD center sequences at O<sub>2</sub>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 7
    <p>The field test site arrangement and the on-line monitoring result of the disc insulator PD. (<bold>a</bold>) The field test site and the test arrangement; (<bold>b</bold>) The on-line monitoring result; (<bold>c</bold>) The coordinate system of the field test site arrangement.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 8
    <p>The TDs and decision diagram at O<sub>2</sub>. (<bold>a</bold>) The TDs at the measurement point O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>b</bold>) The decision diagram when <italic>α<sub>j</sub> </italic>= ?30°; (<bold>c</bold>) The separated TD sequences at O<sub>2</sub>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 9
    <p>The UHF signals received at O<sub>2</sub>; (<bold>a</bold>) The waveform of the UHF signal radiated from the first PD source; (<bold>b</bold>) The waveform of the UHF signal radiated from the second PD source; (<bold>c</bold>) The spectrum of the UHF signal radiated from the first PD source; (<bold>d</bold>) The spectrum of the UHF signal radiated from the second PD source.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 10
    <p>The TD distributions at each measurement point.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle An Ultrahigh Frequency Partial Discharge Signal De-Noising Method Based on a Generalized S-Transform and Module Time-Frequency Matrix
    Sensors 2016, 16(6), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060941
    Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
    Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Due to electromagnetic interference in power substations, the partial discharge (PD) signals detected by ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensors often contain various background noises, which may hamper high voltage apparatus fault diagnosis and localization. This paper proposes a novel de-noising method based on
    [...] Read more.
    Due to electromagnetic interference in power substations, the partial discharge (PD) signals detected by ultrahigh frequency (UHF) antenna sensors often contain various background noises, which may hamper high voltage apparatus fault diagnosis and localization. This paper proposes a novel de-noising method based on the generalized S-transform and module time-frequency matrix to suppress noise in UHF PD signals. The sub-matrix maximum module value method is employed to calculate the frequencies and amplitudes of periodic narrowband noise, and suppress noise through the reverse phase cancellation technique. In addition, a singular value decomposition de-noising method is employed to suppress Gaussian white noise in UHF PD signals. Effective singular values are selected by employing the fuzzy c-means clustering method to recover the PD signals. De-noising results of simulated and field detected UHF PD signals prove the feasibility of the proposed method. Compared with four conventional de-noising methods, the results show that the proposed method can suppress background noise in the UHF PD signal effectively, with higher signal-to-noise ratio and less waveform distortion. Full article
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Contact Sensing)
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Simulated UHF PD signals: (<bold>a</bold>) Simulated PD signals; (<bold>b</bold>) Simulated noisy PD signals.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>The time-frequency distribution of the noisy PD signals calculated by (<bold>a</bold>) the S-transform; and (<bold>b</bold>) the generalized S-transform.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>Relative errors by using different value of λ: (<bold>a</bold>) frequency; (<bold>b</bold>) amplitude.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>UHF PD signals with suppressed periodic narrowband noise: (<bold>a</bold>) in time domain; (<bold>b</bold>) in time-frequency domain.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5
    <p>Procedure of the conventional SVD de-noising method.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6
    <p>Calculated singular values by decomposing the MTFM.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 7
    <p>Selection results of effective singular values based on the FCM clustering algorithm.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 8
    <p>De-noised PD signals: (<bold>a</bold>) time-domain signals; (<bold>b</bold>) time-frequency distribution.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 9
    <p>De-noised PD signals employing SVD when (<bold>a</bold>) <italic>k</italic> = 3; and (<bold>b</bold>) <italic>k</italic> = 5.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 10
    <p>Procedure of the proposed de-noising method.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 11
    <p>De-noising results by employing each method: (<bold>a</bold>) Method B; (<bold>b</bold>) Method C; (<bold>c</bold>) Method D; and (<bold>d</bold>) Method E.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 12
    <p>Comparisons of the original and the de-noised PD pulse shapes. (<bold>a</bold>) Pulse 1; (<bold>b</bold>) Pulse 2; (<bold>c</bold>) Pulse 3; (<bold>d</bold>) Pulse 4.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 13
    <p>Field detection setup in substation.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 14
    <p>PRPD patterns corresponding to the detected UHF signals: (<bold>a</bold>) signal #1; (<bold>b</bold>) signal #2.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 15
    <p>Waveforms and time-frequency distributions detected UHF PD signals: (<bold>a</bold>) signal #1; (<bold>b</bold>) signal #2.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 16
    <p>De-noised PD signals in field detection using each method: (<bold>a</bold>) signal #1; (<bold>b</bold>) signal #2.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle Serum Metabolomic Characterization of Liver Fibrosis in Rats and Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang
    Molecules 2016, 21(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010126
    Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 31 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 21 January 2016
    Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) is a famous Chinese medicine formula which has long been used in clinical practice for treating various liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis. However, to date, the mechanism for its anti-fibrotic effects remains unclear. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight
    [...] Read more.
    Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) is a famous Chinese medicine formula which has long been used in clinical practice for treating various liver diseases, such as liver fibrosis. However, to date, the mechanism for its anti-fibrotic effects remains unclear. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomic study was performed to characterize dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats and evaluate the therapeutic effects of YCHT. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that the model group was well separated from the control group, whereas the YCHT-treated group exhibited a tendency to restore to the controls. Seven significantly changed fibrosis-related metabolites, including unsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PCs), were identified. Moreover, statistical analysis demonstrated that YCHT treatment could reverse the levels of most metabolites close to the normal levels. These results, along with histological and biochemical examinations, indicate that YCHT has anti-fibrotic effects, which may be due to the suppression of oxidative stress and resulting lipid peroxidation involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. This study offers new opportunities to improve our understanding of liver fibrosis and the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of YCHT. Full article
    (This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Representative histological photomicrographs of rat liver sections in the control (<bold>A</bold>); model (<bold>B</bold>) and YCHT group (<bold>C</bold>). Paraffin-embedded sections were stained with Sirius red (original magnification × 200).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>Representative UPLC-TOF-MS total ion chromatograms (TICs) of serum samples from control (<bold>A</bold>); model (<bold>B</bold>); and YCHT treated rats (<bold>C</bold>). Peak numbers of the identified metabolites are consistent with those in <xref ref-type="table" rid="molecules-21-00126-t002">Table 2</xref> and <xref ref-type="table" rid="molecules-21-00126-t003">Table 3</xref>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>PLS-DA scores plot (<bold>A</bold>) and loadings plot (<bold>B</bold>) of rat serum data control group (blue dot, <italic>n</italic> = 15), model group (<bold>red triangle</bold>, <italic>n</italic> = 15), YCHT group (<bold>dark diamond</bold>, <italic>n</italic> = 15) and QC samples (<bold>green star</bold>, <italic>n</italic> = 10). The numbers of changed metabolites in loadings plot are consistent with those in <xref ref-type="table" rid="molecules-21-00126-t003">Table 3</xref>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>High-resolution TOF-MS mass spectra of the representative markers: (<bold>A</bold>) Lyso-PC C18:1 (No. 4) and (<bold>B</bold>) arachidonic acid (No. 7). The numbers of metabolites are consistent with those in <xref ref-type="table" rid="molecules-21-00126-t003">Table 3</xref>.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5
    <p>Altered levels of candidate markers in the control, model and YCHT treated rats. Data are represented as mean ± SEM (<italic>n</italic> = 15 in each group), with <bold>*</bold> <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05 and <bold>**</bold> <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01 from one-way ANOVA analysis. Lyso-PC C16:0 and Lyso-PC C18:0 could not be considered as fibrosis-related markers since their levels in the control and model groups showed no statistical differences.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6
    <p>Proposed mechanistic pathways for the DMN-induced liver fibrosis and anti-fibrotic effects of YCHT. Upward arrowhead indicates up-regulation and downward arrowhead indicates down-regulation. HSC, hepatic stellate cell; ROS, reactive oxygen species; YCHT, Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang.</p>
    Full article ">

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