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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhancing Biochemical Methane Potential and Enrichment of Specific Electroactive Communities from Nixtamalization Wastewater using Granular Activated Carbon as a Conductive Material
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082101
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nejayote (corn step liquor) production in Mexico is approximately 1.4 × 1010 m3 per year and anaerobic digestion is an effective process to transform this waste into green energy. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is one of the most important
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    Nejayote (corn step liquor) production in Mexico is approximately 1.4 × 1010 m3 per year and anaerobic digestion is an effective process to transform this waste into green energy. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is one of the most important tests for evaluating the biodegradability and methane production capacity of any organic waste. Previous research confirms that the addition of conductive materials significantly enhances the methane production yield. This study concludes that the addition of granular activated carbon (GAC) increases methane yield by 34% in the first instance. Furthermore, results show that methane production is increased by 54% when a GAC biofilm is developed 10 days before undertaking the BMP test. In addition, the electroactive population was 30% higher when attached to the GAC than in control reactors. Moreover, results show that electroactive communities attached to the GAC increased by 38% when a GAC biofilm is developed 10 days before undertaking the BMP test, additionally only in these reactors Geobacter was identified. GAC has two main effects in anaerobic digestion; it promotes direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) by developing an electro-active biofilm and simultaneously it reduces redox potential from ?223 mV to ?470 mV. These results suggest that the addition of GAC to biodigesters, improves the anaerobic digestion performance in industrial processed food waste. Full article
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology)
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) curves for control reactor (N), reactors with granular activated carbon (GAC) (N0) and reactors with biofilm GAC developed before undertaking the BMP test (N10). (<bold>A</bold>) Daily methane production (<bold>B</bold>) Cumulative methane production (<bold>C</bold>) methane biogas percentage. Mean values ± SD from triplicate assays.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>Bacteria phylum relative abundance. Phylum level with relative abundance lower than 1% were included in unclassified group. Sludge from control reactor (S), sludge from reactor with granular activated carbon (GAC) (S0), sludge from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (S10), GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC (C0), and GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (C10).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>Bacteria (<bold>A</bold>) and Archaea community structure (<bold>B</bold>) at genus level. Genus level with relative abundance lower than 1% were included in unclassified groups. Sludge from control reactor (S), sludge from reactor with granular activated carbon (GAC) (S0), sludge from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (S10), GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC (C0) and GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (C10).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>Heatmap of bacteria at genus level. Genus level with relative abundance lower than 1% were included in unclassified groups. Sludge from control reactor (S), sludge from reactor with granular activated carbon (GAC) (S0), sludge from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (S10), GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC (C0), and GAC biofilm from reactor with GAC biofilm developed before undertaking the BMP test (C10). Heatmap showing the 17 genera with significant difference of relative abundances among five samples. Heatmap is color-coded based scale (from red (?1) less abundance to green (+1) more abundance).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5
    <p>Scanning electron micrographs of the granular activated carbon surface (<bold>A</bold>), biofilm attached granular activated carbon (<bold>B</bold>), Geobacter communities attached to granular activated carbon (<bold>C</bold>), and Methanosaeta communities attached to granular activated carbon (<bold>D</bold>) after biochemical methane potential test (30 days).</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle Effect of Operating Parameters on the Performance Evaluation of Benthic Microbial Fuel Cells Using Sediments from the Bay of Campeche, Mexico
    Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072446
    Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
    PDF Full-text (2508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC) are devices that remove organic matter (OM) and generate energy from sediments rich in organic nutrients. They are composed of electrodes with adequate different distances and floating air cathodes in an aqueous medium with saturated oxygen. In this
    [...] Read more.
    Benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC) are devices that remove organic matter (OM) and generate energy from sediments rich in organic nutrients. They are composed of electrodes with adequate different distances and floating air cathodes in an aqueous medium with saturated oxygen. In this study we proposed to design, build, analyze and evaluate a set of BMFCs with floating air cathodes to test the optimal distance between the electrodes, using sediment from the Bay of Campeche as a substrate. For the analysis of OM removal, COD tests, volatile solids (VS), E4/E6 study and FTIR analysis were performed. Power generation was evaluated through polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We achieved a current density and power density at 10 cm depth of 929.7 ± 9.5 mA/m2 and 109.6 ± 7.5 mW/m2 respectively, with 54% removal of OM from the sediment, obtaining formation of aliphatic structures. BMFCs are proposed as adequate systems for bioremediation and power generation. The system at 10 cm depth and 100 cm distance between sediment and the floating air cathode had a good performance and therefore the potential for possible scaling. Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>(<bold>a</bold>) SSM with electrodeposition; (<bold>b</bold>) SSME with AC-CB; (<bold>c</bold>) base for the electrode structure; (<bold>d</bold>) base on which the electrode is located; (<bold>e</bold>) lid that serves to press the electrode; (<bold>f</bold>) electrode seal; (<bold>g</bold>) Anode electrode; (<bold>h</bold>) structure of BMFC with assembled electrodes.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>BMFC diagram with different distances between floating air cathode and anode depths.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>FTIR of humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) (peak descriptors in the text).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>Polarization and power density curves at 10 cm (anode depth) and separation between the cathode and anode of 10 cm and 100 cm (North and Rain).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 5
    <p>Cyclic voltammetry obtained from the evaluation of the sediment at different sweeping speeds.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 6
    <p>Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (<bold>a</bold>) BMFC during weather system from the North and (<bold>b</bold>) BMFC in Rainy season and equivalent circuit. DS: Distance, D. Depth.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessCommunication Polarization Potential Has No Effect on Maximum Current Density Produced by Halotolerant Bioanodes
    Energies 2018, 11(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030529
    Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
    PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    Halotolerant bioanodes are considered an attractive alternative in microbial electrochemical systems, as they can operate under higher conductive electrolytes, in comparison with traditional wastewater and freshwater bioanodes. The dependency between energetic performance and polarization potential has been addressed in several works; however the
    [...] Read more.
    Halotolerant bioanodes are considered an attractive alternative in microbial electrochemical systems, as they can operate under higher conductive electrolytes, in comparison with traditional wastewater and freshwater bioanodes. The dependency between energetic performance and polarization potential has been addressed in several works; however the vast majority discusses its effect when wastewater or freshwater inocula are employed, and fewer reports focus on inocula from highly-saline environments. Moreover, the effect of the polarization potential on current production is not fully understood. To determine if the polarization potential has a significant effect on current production, eight bioanodes were grown by chronoamperometry at positive and negative potentials relative to the reference electrode (+0.34 V/SHE and ?0.16 V/SHE), in a three-electrode set-up employing sediments from a hyperhaline coastal lagoon. The maximum current density obtained was the same, despite the differences in the applied potential. Our findings indicate that even if differences in organic matter removal and coulombic efficiency are obtained, the polarization potential had no statistically significant effect on overall current density production. Full article
    (This article belongs to the collection Bioenergy and Biofuel)
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>Current density versus time at (<bold>a</bold>) +0.34 V/SHE and (<bold>b</bold>) ?0.16 V/SHE polarization potential.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>COD consumption and feeding profiles during chronoamperometry at (<bold>a</bold>) +0.34 V/SHE and (<bold>b</bold>) ?0.16 V/SHE polarization potential.</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>Linear voltammetry (1 mV s<sup>?1</sup>) after 21 days of polarization at (<bold>a</bold>) +0.34 V/SHE and (<bold>b</bold>) ?0.16 V/SHE.</p>
    Full article ">
    Open AccessArticle Biological Pretreatment of Mexican Caribbean Macroalgae Consortiums Using Bm-2 Strain (Trametes hirsuta) and Its Enzymatic Broth to Improve Biomethane Potential
    Energies 2018, 11(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030494
    Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
    Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
    Abstract
    The macroalgae consortium biomass in the Mexican Caribbean represents an emerging and promising biofuel feedstock. Its biological pretreatment and potential for energetic conversion to biomethane were investigated, since some macroalgae have hard cell walls that present an obstacle to efficient methane production when
    [...] Read more.
    The macroalgae consortium biomass in the Mexican Caribbean represents an emerging and promising biofuel feedstock. Its biological pretreatment and potential for energetic conversion to biomethane were investigated, since some macroalgae have hard cell walls that present an obstacle to efficient methane production when those substrates are used. It has been revealed by anaerobic digestion assays that pretreatment with a Bm-2 strain (Trametes hirsuta) isolated from decaying wood in Yucatan, Mexico was 104 L CH4 kg·VS?1; In fact, the fungal pretreatment produced a 20% increase in methane yield, with important amounts of alkali metals Ca, K, Mg, Na of 78 g/L, ash 35.5% and lignin 15.6%. It is unlikely that high concentrations of ash and alkali metals will produce an ideal feedstock for combustion or pyrolysis, but they can be recommended for a biological process. Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1

    Figure 1
    <p>FT-IR spectral of untreated and pretreated macroalgae consortium sample. Black line: macroalgae consortium (Mc), green line: macroalgae–fungal broth (McFb) and red line: macroalgae fungi (McF).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 2
    <p>Scanning electron micrographs of macroalgae consortium samples before and after pretreatment. (<bold>a</bold>,<bold>a′</bold>): macroalgae consortium (Mc), (<bold>b</bold>,<bold>b′</bold>): macroalgae + fungal broth (McFb), (<bold>c</bold>,<bold>c′</bold>): macroalgae + fungi (McF).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 3
    <p>Accumulated production of methane for the anaerobic digestion of macroalgae consortium employing two pretreatments and a control. Macroalgae consortium (Mc); macroalgae consortium + fungal broth (McFb); macroalgae consortium + fungi (McF).</p>
    Full article ">Figure 4
    <p>Content of salts, mainly sodium chloride and potassium chloride, in the macroalgae consortium.</p>
    Full article ">

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