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秒速赛车开奖走势图: Viroids as Companions of a Professional Career

Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología. Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030245
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
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PDF [5379 KB, uploaded 12 March 2019]
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Figure 1
<p>Analysis of different inoculated hosts by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and ethidium bromide staining. A characteristic band corresponding to a viroid RNA was stained in samples (1–3) from <italic>Gynura aurantiaca</italic> (<bold>A</bold>), tomato (<bold>B</bold>), and Etrog citron showing severe symptoms, whereas the same band was not observed in samples (4,5) from Etrog citron plants displaying mild and moderate symptoms (<bold>D</bold>–<bold>F</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 2
<p>Analysis of inoculated Etrog citron plants by sPAGE and silver staining. Only plants showing severe symptoms (<bold>A</bold>) contained a band with the characteristic mobility of citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) (1). Analysis of Etrog citron plants displaying mild and moderate symptoms (<bold>B</bold>–<bold>D</bold>) revealed bands with electrophoretic mobility different from CEVd (2–7). Virtually all plants contained a mixture of viroid-like RNAs that had to be further characterized.</p> ">
Figure 3
<p>Analysis of inoculated Etrog citron plants by sPAGE and silver staining showing that they were infected with single viroids (1–5). CVd-II was not homogeneous but conformed by several bands (<bold>A</bold>,<bold>C</bold>) with slightly distinct electrophoretic mobilities (<bold>B</bold>) that were further characterized as specific variants of <italic>Hop stunt viroid</italic> (HSVd) showing faster mobility than CEVd (<bold>D</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 4
<p>Characteristic symptoms as a result of viroid infection in plants grafted on trifoliate orange: Bark scaling induced by CEVd in trifoliate orange (<bold>A</bold>); bark cracking induced by <italic>Citrus bark cracking viroid</italic> (CBCVd) in trifoliate orange (<bold>B</bold>); wood pitting and gum deposits in the clementine scion caused by cachexia strains of HSVd (<bold>C</bold>); green streaks under the cracks induced by CBCVd in trifoliate orange (<bold>D</bold>). Lesions in the roots caused by CEVd in Citrange carrizo roots (<bold>E</bold>,<bold>F</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 5
<p>The two scientists responsible for the early discovery/characterization of viroids as disease-causing agents and their conflictive publication.</p> ">
Figure 6
<p>The dedication to cooperation issues in different parts of the world showed that in certain countries, as in Bhutan, the philosophy of life is to be taken into consideration.</p> ">
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Abstract

Since the early 1970s when “virus-like” agents were considered as the cause of two diseases (potato spindle tuber and citrus exocortis), their study and further characterization have been linked to the development and use of molecular biology tools. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) played a critical role in the pioneering studies of PSTVd and citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd). This was later modified by using other PAGEs (sequential PAGE, return PAGE, two-dimensional PAGE), and/or different staining methods (ethidium bromide, silver nitrate, etc.). Since then, disease-causing agents suspected to be viroids were usually subjected to a number of tests to define their: (i) Molecular nature (RNA or DNA; single stranded or double stranded; circular or linear RNA); (ii) molecular weight; (iii) secondary and tertiary structure. Further biological assays are also essential to establish the relationship of a viroid with plant disease and to fulfill Koch’s postulates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Viroid diseases; Symptom expression; Cooperation approaches Viroid diseases; Symptom expression; Cooperation approaches
Figures

秒速赛车是哪里的开奖 www.0dv0k.cn Figure 1

Figure 1
<p>Analysis of different inoculated hosts by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and ethidium bromide staining. A characteristic band corresponding to a viroid RNA was stained in samples (1–3) from <italic>Gynura aurantiaca</italic> (<bold>A</bold>), tomato (<bold>B</bold>), and Etrog citron showing severe symptoms, whereas the same band was not observed in samples (4,5) from Etrog citron plants displaying mild and moderate symptoms (<bold>D</bold>–<bold>F</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 2
<p>Analysis of inoculated Etrog citron plants by sPAGE and silver staining. Only plants showing severe symptoms (<bold>A</bold>) contained a band with the characteristic mobility of citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) (1). Analysis of Etrog citron plants displaying mild and moderate symptoms (<bold>B</bold>–<bold>D</bold>) revealed bands with electrophoretic mobility different from CEVd (2–7). Virtually all plants contained a mixture of viroid-like RNAs that had to be further characterized.</p> ">
Figure 3
<p>Analysis of inoculated Etrog citron plants by sPAGE and silver staining showing that they were infected with single viroids (1–5). CVd-II was not homogeneous but conformed by several bands (<bold>A</bold>,<bold>C</bold>) with slightly distinct electrophoretic mobilities (<bold>B</bold>) that were further characterized as specific variants of <italic>Hop stunt viroid</italic> (HSVd) showing faster mobility than CEVd (<bold>D</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 4
<p>Characteristic symptoms as a result of viroid infection in plants grafted on trifoliate orange: Bark scaling induced by CEVd in trifoliate orange (<bold>A</bold>); bark cracking induced by <italic>Citrus bark cracking viroid</italic> (CBCVd) in trifoliate orange (<bold>B</bold>); wood pitting and gum deposits in the clementine scion caused by cachexia strains of HSVd (<bold>C</bold>); green streaks under the cracks induced by CBCVd in trifoliate orange (<bold>D</bold>). Lesions in the roots caused by CEVd in Citrange carrizo roots (<bold>E</bold>,<bold>F</bold>).</p> ">
Figure 5
<p>The two scientists responsible for the early discovery/characterization of viroids as disease-causing agents and their conflictive publication.</p> ">
Figure 6
<p>The dedication to cooperation issues in different parts of the world showed that in certain countries, as in Bhutan, the philosophy of life is to be taken into consideration.</p> ">
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Duran-Vila, N. Viroids as Companions of a Professional Career. Viruses 2019, 11, 245.

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